Gay marriage

For more than a decade, the battle over same-sex marriage and other rights for gay couples has been hard fought in U.S. courts and legislatures and at the ballot box. Use this timeline to view milestones in the fight and how state laws have changed since 2000. On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry nationwide.

Updated: June 26, 2015

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Lori and Liz Love of Davis, Calif., talk over the decision to register with the state as domestic partners.
Lori and Liz Love of Davis, Calif., talk over the decision to register with the state as domestic partners. (Robert Durell / Los Angeles Times)

California starts registering domestic partners. While groundbreaking, the law affords same-sex couples only two benefits: hospital visitation rights and health insurance coverage for the dependents of government employees covered by CalPERS, the state retirement system.

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California
Backers of Proposition 22 await returns in Sacramento.
Backers of Proposition 22 await returns in Sacramento. (Robert Durell /Los Angeles Times)

More than 61% of Californians approve a ballot measure declaring that marriage should remain reserved for couples of the opposite sex. Just 14 words long, Proposition 22 was one of the shortest initiatives ever placed on a California ballot. Yet it ignited an emotional $16-million campaign that set church against church, neighbor against neighbor and relative against relative.

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California

Vermont Gov. Howard Dean signs landmark legislation granting the full benefits of marriage to same-sex couples in the Vermont. Under the law, same-sex couples will be able to enter into a civil union intended to be the parallel of marriage.

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Northeast

Colorado Gov. Bill Owens signs a bill banning gay marriages — making Colorado the 33rd state in the nation to prohibit same-sex unions.

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West
Lynn Goyette, left, and Eileen Blackwood have an early appointment to get a civil union license.
Lynn Goyette, left, and Eileen Blackwood have an early appointment to get a civil union license. (Karen Pike Riesner / Burlington Free Press)

Vermont’s civil union law extends more than 300 benefits associated with marriage to gay and lesbian couples. Scores of couples from around the state and elsewhere descend on town halls to apply for a license giving them the same benefits heterosexual couples have — but not the word “marriage.”

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Northeast

Nebraska voters amend the state constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. The measure is in part an effort to make sure that the state will not have to recognize same-sex marriages approved by other states.

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Midwest

Nearly 70% of Nevada voters approve amending the constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman and to ban recognizing out-of-state same-sex marriages. State law already bans same-sex marriage. In Nevada, constitutional amendments must be passed twice before taking effect.

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West

Seven same-sex couples file suit to be allowed to marry in Massachusetts. Their lawsuit is filed less than two weeks after four gay couples exchanged wedding vows in the Netherlands, the first nation to allow such unions.

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Northeast

Missouri Gov. Bob Holden quietly signs into law a bill restoring Missouri’s ban on same-sex marriages. Holden signed the legislation hours before a public ceremony for other bills and on the last day possible for him to either approve or veto legislation.

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Midwest

California Gov. Gray Davis signs a bill that substantially expands the rights granted domestic partners. The bill adds about a dozen legal benefits, including the right to make medical decisions for a partner in the hospital, use sick leave to care for an ill or incapacitated partner and relocate with a partner without losing unemployment benefits.

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California

After nearly a decade of congressionally imposed barriers, officials in the nation’s capital celebrate efforts to provide benefits for the domestic partners of municipal employees. At hospitals in the city the certification will clear the way for partners to visit their loved ones over the objections of blood relatives.

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South

Nevada voters approve a constitutional amendment barring same-sex marriages. Voters approved the initiative in 2000, but it needed to pass again in 2002 in order to amend the state’s constitution.

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West

Texas Gov. Rick Perry signs a law preventing his state from legally recognizing same-sex unions that are formed in other states. The new law denies same-sex couples who were joined in a marriage or civil union in another state the right to claim any legal protection or benefit granted to married people in Texas.

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South

California Gov. Gray Davis signs a bill that gives state-registered domestic partners many of the legal rights and obligations of married couples in matters involving children, money and property. While stopping short of recognizing gay marriage, the law gives a partner the right to financial support and child custody after a partnership is dissolved and gives a survivor the right to collect his or her partner’s government benefits.

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California
Ed Balmelli, left, and Michael Horgan, one of seven gay couples who sued the state of Massachusetts, celebrate in Boston.
Ed Balmelli, left, and Michael Horgan, one of seven gay couples who sued the state of Massachusetts, celebrate in Boston. (Elise Amendola / Associated Press)

In the broadest ruling to date, Massachusetts’ highest court, in a 4-3 decision, says that the state’s constitution guarantees same-sex couples the right to wed. The ruling reformulates the conventional definition of civil marriage and gives the Legislature 180 days to come up with a plan to allow individuals of the same sex to wed.

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Northeast

New Jersey Gov. James McGreevey signs the Domestic Partnership Act, which grants unprecedented legal, healthcare and financial rights to same-sex partners in the state. The bill, however, stops short of authorizing gay marriages.

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Northeast
President Bush addresses the nation during his State of the Union address.
President Bush addresses the nation during his State of the Union address. (Kevin Lamarque / Pool)

President Bush reiterates his commitment to defend “the sanctity of marriage” and criticizes judges who have moved toward legalizing gay marriage. He suggests that a constitutional amendment might be required to stave off gay marriage but stops just short of supporting the idea.

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United States

Massachusetts’ highest court, at the request of state legislators, clarifies its stand on gay unions. The court rules that same-sex couples are entitled to marry beginning as early as May. The ruling makes Massachusetts the first state to grant the full rights of marriage to gay and lesbian couples.

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Northeast
Ohio Gov. Bob Taft speaks during the National Governors Assn. meeting in February 2004.
Ohio Gov. Bob Taft speaks during the National Governors Assn. meeting in February 2004. (Manuel Balce Ceneta / Associated Press)

Ohio Gov. Bob Taft approves a far-reaching gay marriage ban, calling its adoption urgent since same-sex weddings could take place as early as the spring in Massachusetts. The bill also prohibits state employees from getting marital benefits for their unmarried partners, homosexual or heterosexual.

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Midwest
Josh Friedes, right, and Scott Lacava demonstrate at the statehouse where the Senate voted down the ban.
Josh Friedes, right, and Scott Lacava demonstrate at the statehouse where the Senate voted down the ban. (Chitose Suzuki / Associated Press)

In a rare constitutional convention, the Massachusetts Legislature defeats a constitutional amendment, 104 to 94, that would have defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman. The amendment would have allowed for civil unions between same-sex couples. Legislators also narrowly reject a second amendment that would have banned same-sex marriage altogether. The proposals were designed to negate a Supreme Judicial Court ruling that allows gays and lesbians to marry beginning in May.

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Northeast
Molly McKay, left, phones relatives to tell them of her marriage to partner Davina Kotulski, also on a phone at right.
Molly McKay, left, phones relatives to tell them of her marriage to partner Davina Kotulski, also on a phone at right. (Robert Durell / Los Angeles Times)

San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom instructs city officials to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, the first action of its kind in the nation. Dozens of couples are married as city offices stay open late to accommodate long lines.

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California
A supporter of gay marriage holds a sign outside the Massachusetts State House.
A supporter of gay marriage holds a sign outside the Massachusetts State House. (Michael Springer / Getty Images)

The Massachusetts Legislature votes down more amendments to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. No constitutional amendments pass and the Legislature adjourns until March 11.

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Northeast
Beth Hill, left, and Christin Boyd exchange vows under the guidance of the Rev. David Gant, but the state later said their license was invalid.
Beth Hill, left, and Christin Boyd exchange vows under the guidance of the Rev. David Gant, but the state later said their license was invalid. (Rick Scibelli Jr. / Associated Press)

The Sandoval County clerk announces she will grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples, doling out 26. But New Mexico Atty. Gen. Patricia Madrid revokes them by issuing a late-afternoon opinion that the licenses are “invalid under state law.”

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West
President Bush calls a ban on same-sex marriages a matter of "national importance."
President Bush calls a ban on same-sex marriages a matter of "national importance." (Associated Press)

President Bush thrusts gay marriage into the presidential campaign by calling for a constitutional amendment to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman. He expresses alarm at the gay marriages conducted in San Francisco and the potential for same-sex weddings soon in Massachusetts.

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United States
Jeffrey McGowan, left, and Billiam van Roestenberg are the first to wed.
Jeffrey McGowan, left, and Billiam van Roestenberg are the first to wed. (Jim McKnight / Associated Press)

Twenty-one gay couples exchange wedding vows on the steps of the city building in New Paltz, a village 75 miles north of New York City. As a result, the state Health Department asks the attorney general to seek an injunction to halt the weddings. Mayor Jason West issues couples only a marriage certificate and not a marriage license.

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Northeast

Ulster County district attorney charges New Paltz Mayor Jason West with 19 criminal counts for performing weddings for gay couples, a misdemeanor. West vows to continue.

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Northeast

Multnomah County Chairwoman Diane Linn orders clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples after a county attorney determines that restricting marriage to the union of a man and a woman is discrimination. Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski says he favors civil unions but questions the legality of the decision to issue marriage licenses in the county.

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West

The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and the Los Angeles City Council pass resolutions opposing a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriages.

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California

New York Atty. Gen. Eliot Spitzer issues an opinion stating that New York law defines matrimony as a union between a man and woman. Gay marriages and civil unions from outside the state will be recognized.

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Northeast

Exuberant gay and lesbian couples brave rain and wind to exchange wedding vows in Portland, Ore.

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West

A New York state judge bars New Paltz Mayor Jason West from performing more same-sex marriages for a month, saying he is ignoring his oath of office.

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Northeast

Seattle’s mayor, Greg Nickels, signs an executive order giving same-sex spouses of city employees all the benefits of heterosexual spouses, including health insurance, and recognizing gay marriages performed elsewhere.

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West
Pali Cooper, left, hugs partner Jeanne Rizzo after learning that they could not be married.
Pali Cooper, left, hugs partner Jeanne Rizzo after learning that they could not be married. (Robert Durell / Los Angeles Times)

The California Supreme Court unanimously orders San Francisco to stop marrying gay couples and announces that it will rule on the legality of the city’s actions within the next few months. In four weeks, nearly 4,000 gay couples received licenses.

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California
David Vaughan, who supports same-sex marriage, is surrounded by opponents in Boston.
David Vaughan, who supports same-sex marriage, is surrounded by opponents in Boston. (Chitose Suzuki / Associated Press)

The Massachusetts Legislature approves a constitutional amendment, 105 to 92, to ban gay marriage and establish civil unions for same-sex couples. Before it can become law, however, it must again be approved by both chambers in 2005 and then voted on by the public as early as 2006. Gov. Mitt Romney seeks to stop the court-mandated May 17 start date for same-sex marriages.

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Northeast

Multnomah Circuit Judge Frank Bearden halts gay marriages, but in a historic ruling he orders the state to legally recognize the unions that already have taken place. More than 3,000 marriage licenses had been issued to gay couples.

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West

Maine’s Gov. John Baldacci signs legislation creating domestic partnerships. The law, which takes effect June 30, gives domestic partners the same inheritance rights as spouses when a married partner dies without a will.

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Northeast
Hillary Goodridge, right, and Julie Goodridge, left, raise their right hands and affirm that everything on their marriage license is correct while at Boston City Hall.
Hillary Goodridge, right, and Julie Goodridge, left, raise their right hands and affirm that everything on their marriage license is correct while at Boston City Hall. (Charles Krupa / AP Photo)

Massachusetts becomes the first state to legalize same-sex marriage, joining Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and three Canadian provinces as the only places in the world where gays and lesbians can marry.

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Northeast

Missouri voters overwhelmingly approve a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. About 70% of voters agree to add this sentence to the Missouri Constitution: “To be valid and recognized in this state, a marriage shall exist only between a man and a woman.”

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Midwest
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom, right, with City Atty. Dennis Herrera.
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom, right, with City Atty. Dennis Herrera. (Robert Durell / Los Angeles Times)

The California Supreme Court rules unanimously that San Francisco’s mayor overstepped his authority by issuing same-sex marriage licenses this spring. By a 5-2 vote, the court also declares the roughly 4,000 marriages of gay and lesbian couples that had been sanctioned by the city “void from their inception and a legal nullity.”

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California

Louisiana voters overwhelmingly approve a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages and civil unions.

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South

A judge throws out an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution banning gay marriage because the state Legislature had made the ban too broad. The amendment had sought to outlaw gay marriage, civil unions and domestic partnerships.

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South

Voters in Oregon pass a constitutional amendment that defines marriage as a union between a man and a woman.

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West

About three-quarters of Arkansas voters approve an amendment banning same-sex marriage. Amendment 3 defines marriage as a union between a man and a woman and prohibits other arrangements from having the legal status of marriage.

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South

In Georgia, a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage carries 77% of the vote. The week before, the state Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that it could not stop the vote.

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South

Nearly two-thirds of Utah voters approve a constitutional amendment specifically defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman. The amendment also states that no other domestic union can be recognized as a marriage or treated equally.

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West

About 75% of Kentucky voters approve an amendment banning same-sex marriage and civil unions. State law already bans gay marriage, but the constitutional amendment prevents Kentucky judges from taking action similar to that in Massachusetts.

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South

In Michigan, an amendment defining marriage as the union of a man and a woman wins about 60% approval. State law already bans gay marriage, but as in other states, supporters wanted the language placed in the constitution.

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Midwest

About 62% of Ohio voters approve Issue 1, which bans same-sex marriages and civil unions. As a result, five publicly supported Ohio colleges will no longer offer benefits to unmarried couples — gay or straight.

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Midwest

In North Dakota, an amendment limiting marriage rights to heterosexual couples wins 73% approval.

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Midwest

About 75% of Oklahoma voters approve State Question 711, which bans same-sex marriage and prohibits giving the benefits of marriage to unmarried people.

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South

More than 85% of Mississippi voters approve an amendment to ban same-sex marriage. It also prohibits Mississippi from recognizing same-sex marriages approved in other states.

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South

Nearly two-thirds of Montana voters pass a constitutional amendment stating marriage is between a man and a woman. State law had already defined marriage as a heterosexual union.

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West

A San Francisco judge hears arguments on same-sex marriage. At the heart of the consolidated lawsuits — brought by the city of San Francisco and a dozen gay and lesbian couples — is the contention that current law defining marriage as “between a man and a woman” violates the state Constitution by denying homosexuals the “fundamental right” to marry the person of their choosing.

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California

The Montana Supreme Court declares that the state constitution’s guarantee of equal protection extends to gays, and that the state university system must offer same-sex couples the same health benefits available to heterosexual ones.

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West

The Louisiana Supreme Court unanimously reinstates an anti-gay-marriage amendment to the state constitution that was overwhelmingly approved by voters in September.

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South

Kansas voters approve a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages and civil unions by more than a 2-1 ratio, bolstering existing state law on the issue.

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Midwest
Couples Marcia and Jill Stanard, left and center left, and Lauren and Rivka Gevurts, center right and right, are joined by their children at a vigil in front of the Oregon Supreme Court in Salem on the eve of the decision on same-sex marriage.
Couples Marcia and Jill Stanard, left and center left, and Lauren and Rivka Gevurts, center right and right, are joined by their children at a vigil in front of the Oregon Supreme Court in Salem on the eve of the decision on same-sex marriage. (Andrea J. Wright / Statesman Journal)

The Oregon Supreme Court voids nearly 3,000 marriage licenses issued by Multnomah County to gay and lesbian couples in March and April 2004. The court noted that Oregonians had passed a constitutional amendment defining marriage as a heterosexual institution in November 2004.

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West

Connecticut becomes the second state to offer civil unions to same-sex couples and the first to do so without being required to by the courts.

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Northeast

A federal judge strikes down Nebraska’s constitutional ban on gay marriage, passed in 2000, arguing that the measure interferes not only with the rights of gay couples but also with those of foster parents, adopted children and people in a host of other living arrangements.

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Midwest

The California Supreme Court declines to hear a challenge to the state’s sweeping domestic partners benefits law. Critics of the law thought such benefits would be prohibited by Proposition 22, which declares that marriage is only between a man and a woman.

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California

The California Supreme Court rules that children born to gay couples have two legally recognized parents. It’s the first such ruling in the nation.

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California

California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoes a same-sex marriage bill after it passed the Senate and Assembly. Schwarzenegger says the bill would wrongly reverse Proposition 22, which declares that marriage is only between a man and a woman.

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California

The Alaska Supreme Court rules that it is unconstitutional to bar benefits for the same-sex partners of public employees.

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West

The Washington Supreme Court rules that a lesbian who had helped raise a child with the child’s biological mother can seek rights as a parent. The ruling creates a new class of parent irrespective of sex.

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West

More than three-quarters of Texas voters approve a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. The amendment also bars recognition of gay marriages performed elsewhere.

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South

A Maryland Circuit Court judge sides with nine gay couples, ruling that the state’s law defining marriage as being between a man and a woman violates the state constitution.

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South
Amy Zimmerman, left, and Tanya Wexler of New York with their children Jerry and Ella.
Amy Zimmerman, left, and Tanya Wexler of New York with their children Jerry and Ella. (Chitose Suzuki / AP Photo)

The Supreme Judicial Court rules that city and town clerks may not issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples from out of state. The court upholds a 1913 law that bars couples from out of state from marrying in Massachusetts if their unions would not be recognized in their home states.

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Northeast

By an overwhelming 81%, Alabama voters approve a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage.

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South
Gay-rights activists assemble in New York City the day that the state's highest court rules against gay marriage.
Gay-rights activists assemble in New York City the day that the state's highest court rules against gay marriage. (Mario Tama / Getty Images)

The New York Court of Appeals rules 4 to 2 against more than 40 same-sex couples challenging the state’s decades-old statute limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples.

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Northeast

The state Supreme Court reinstates Georgia’s constitutional ban on gay marriage, ruling unanimously that the ban did not violate the state’s single-subject rule for ballot measures. Attorneys for the plaintiffs had argued that ballot language appeared to ban gay marriages as well as gay civil unions.

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South
Alan Fuller, left, leaves court with partner Jeff Kingsbury after justices upheld the state's gay-marriage ban.
Alan Fuller, left, leaves court with partner Jeff Kingsbury after justices upheld the state's gay-marriage ban. (Ted S. Warren / AP Photo)

Washington’s Supreme Court rules 5 to 4 that there is no constitutional right for people of the same sex to marry. The decision upholds the Legislature’s 1998 Defense of Marriage Act.

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West

Judge Patty Jenkins Pittman of New Haven Superior Court in Connecticut says that same-sex couples are afforded the benefits and protections of marriage through the civil unions law, which took effect in October.

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Northeast

The 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reinstates Nebraska’s voter-approved ban on same-sex marriage. The ban, which was struck down by a federal judge in May 2005, had been approved by 70% of Nebraska voters in 2000.

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Midwest
Supporters of same-sex marriage wait for the ruling, which left key details to the Legislature.
Supporters of same-sex marriage wait for the ruling, which left key details to the Legislature. (Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)

New Jersey’s Supreme Court rules that the state constitution guarantees gay couples all the rights and benefits of marriage, except one: the word “marriage.” The 4-3 decision gives the Legislature six months to act.

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Northeast
Charise Miros, left, and her partner, Jordan Bair, watch election returns on Colorado's referendum to create domestic partnerships.
Charise Miros, left, and her partner, Jordan Bair, watch election returns on Colorado's referendum to create domestic partnerships. (Matt McClain / Rocky Mountain News)

Colorado voters ban same-sex marriage and defeat a separate ballot initiative to permit domestic partnerships.

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West

Seventy-eight percent of South Carolina voters elect to ban gay marriage.

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South

Arizona voters are the first to defeat a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage among 20 states that have voted on such bans. Christine Nelson of the National Conference of State Legislatures calls the vote an “extraordinary” development.

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West

Wisconsin voters limit marriage to a union between one man and one woman by constitutional amendment. Gay rights advocates note that more than 40% voted no.

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Midwest

South Dakota voters pass a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.

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Midwest

Idaho amends constitution to ban gay marriage

Sixty-three percent of Idaho voters elect to amend the state constitution to ban gay marriage.

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Midwest

Eighty-one percent of Tennessee voters elect to ban gay marriage.

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South

Virginia voters limit marriage to a union between one man and one woman by constitutional amendment. Amendment also forbids giving marriage-like status to unmarried couples.

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South
Supporters wave from the gallery as the civil unions bill is debated in the New Jersey Assembly.
Supporters wave from the gallery as the civil unions bill is debated in the New Jersey Assembly. (Mel Evans / AP Photo)

New Jersey becomes the third state to allow civil unions. In October the state’s Supreme Court had ruled that gay couples are constitutionally guaranteed the benefits of marriage — but left it to legislators whether to call these unions “marriage.”

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Northeast
New Jersey Gov. Jon S. Corzine, seen April 2007.
New Jersey Gov. Jon S. Corzine, seen April 2007. (Mel Evans / AP Photo)

New Jersey Gov. Jon J. Corzine signs a civil union law making his state the third in the nation to allow such unions. In October the state’s Supreme Court had ruled that gay couples are constitutionally guaranteed the benefits of marriage — but left it to legislators whether to call these unions “marriage.”

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Northeast

A Michigan appeals court rules that public universities, state agencies and local governments in Michigan cannot offer health insurance to the partners of gay and lesbian employees.

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Midwest

New Jersey becomes third state to offer civil unions

New Jersey begins civil unions, offering the legal benefits but not the title of marriage. Civil unions were granted automatically to the hundreds of same-sex New Jersey couples who had been joined in civil unions or married in other states or nations.

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Northeast

Rhode Island Atty. Gen. Patrick Lynch rules that gay marriages legally performed in Massachusetts will be recognized as marriages in Rhode Island. Lynch acknowledges that his legal opinion does not have the force of law.

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Northeast

Washington state Gov. Chris Gregoire signs into law a measure to create domestic partnerships, giving gay and lesbian couples some of the same rights that come with marriage.

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West

Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski signs laws giving gays and lesbians most of the benefits of marriage through domestic partnerships and outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation.

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West

New Hampshire Gov. John Lynch approves legislation creating gay civil unions, allowing such couples to apply for the same rights as married people beginning in January 2008.

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Northeast

A measure to legalize marriage for gay couples easily passes the California Assembly after a respectful debate. As he did in 2005, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger is expected to veto the measure.

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California
Greg Kimball, left, of Manchester, Mass., and his partner, Brian O'Connor, celebrate after Massachusetts lawmakers blocked a statewide vote to ban same-sex marriage.
Greg Kimball, left, of Manchester, Mass., and his partner, Brian O'Connor, celebrate after Massachusetts lawmakers blocked a statewide vote to ban same-sex marriage. (Stephan Savoia / AP Photo)

In a victory for supporters of gay marriage, Massachusetts lawmakers block a measure to let voters decide whether a constitutional amendment should ban same-sex marriage. Conservative groups had tried for four years to override a historic 2003 court decision that legalized gay marriage in the state.

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Northeast

A county judge in Iowa strikes down the state’s decade-old gay marriage ban as unconstitutional and orders local officials to process marriage licenses for six gay couples. Less than two hours after it was publicized, two Des Moines men apply for a license, the first time the county accepted a same-sex marriage application.

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Midwest

A day after a judge in Polk County ruled that Iowa’s ban on gay marriage was unconstitutional, the same judge enacts a stay on his own ruling. The lifting of the ban stood long enough for one gay couple to get married.

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Midwest

Maryland’s highest court upholds a 34-year-old state law banning same-sex marriage, rejecting an attempt by gays and lesbians to win the right to marry. In reversing a lower court’s decision, the Court of Appeals rules 4 to 3 that limiting marriage to a man and a woman does not discriminate against gay couples.

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South

San Diego mayor reverses opposition to gay marriage

San Diego Mayo Jerry Sanders, seen in November 2005
San Diego Mayo Jerry Sanders, seen in November 2005 (Lenny Ignelzi / AP Photo)

An emotional Mayor Jerry Sanders abruptly reverses his public opposition to same-sex marriage. Sanders, tears welling and voice breaking, says he realizes that he can not tell his daughter Lisa, who is gay, that her relationship with a partner is not as important as that of a straight couple.

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California

California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoes a bill approved by state lawmakers that would legalize gay marriage. He says the courts need to rule on the legality of Proposition 22, the gay marriage ban passed by voters.

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California

The Rhode Island Supreme Court, in a 3-2 decision, rules that a lesbian couple who had married in Massachusetts could not be divorced in Rhode Island because the state defines marriage as the union between a man and a woman. The state’s attorney general had issued a legal opinion in 2007 that Massachusetts’ same-sex marriages would be recognized, but conceded that his opinion did not have the force of law.

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Northeast

Dozens of gay and lesbian couples enter into civil unions in Concord, N.H., in the early moments of New Year’s Day as a new state law legalizes the partnerships after midnight. Participants bundle up against below-freezing temperatures.

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Northeast

More than eight months after Oregon Gov. Ted Kulongoski signed laws giving gays and lesbians most of the benefits of marriage through domestic partnerships, the state starts accepting registrations.

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West
John Lewis, left, and Stuart Gaffney listen at a news conference about hearing on same-sex unions.
John Lewis, left, and Stuart Gaffney listen at a news conference about hearing on same-sex unions. (Robert Durell / Los Angeles Times)

The California Supreme Court considers four lawsuits brought by same-sex couples after San Francisco issued marriage licenses in 2004. Three of the court’s seven justices indicate they will uphold state law defining marriage as between a man and a woman. Ruling is expected within 90 days.

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California

Washington Gov. Chris Gregoire signs legislation extending the state’s definition of domestic partnership to include more than 170 of the benefits and responsibilities given to married couples.

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West

California Supreme Court strikes down state ban on same-sex marriage in a 4-3 ruling

The California Supreme Court rules that the state constitution protects a fundamental “right to marry” that extends equally to same-sex couples. The three dissenting justices argue that it is up to the electorate or the Legislature to decide whether gays should marry.

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California

Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley signs legislation that gives domestic partners the right to make medical decisions and funeral decisions and to make hospital visits, among other rights.

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South

New York Gov. David Paterson tells state agencies to recognize gay marriages performed where the unions are legal, including California and Massachusetts. New York does not allow gay couples to marry in the state.

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Northeast

California secretary of state rules an initiative barring gay marriage qualifies for Nov. 4 ballot

More than 1 million signatures are submitted for a ballot measure that would amend the state constitution to define marriage as a union “between a man and a woman” and undo the California Supreme Court ruling allowing gay marriages.

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California

County registrars and clerks in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Alameda, Sonoma and Yolo counties keep offices open to allow at least two dozen same-sex couples the distinction of being among the first to wed. Seven Southern California Roman Catholic bishops, including L.A. Cardinal Roger Mahony, reaffirm their opposition to same-sex marriage.

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California

The California Supreme Court rejects arguments that Proposition 8 — which if passed by voters would amend the state Constitution to ban gay marriage — is an illegal constitutional revision. Justices also reject the argument that voters had been misled when they signed petitions to put it on the ballot.

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California

The Connecticut Supreme Court gives gay and lesbian couples the right to marry, ruling that civil unions relegate them to a “separate” and “inferior status” that falls short of equality. Connecticut now joins Massachusetts and California in authorizing marriage for gay and lesbian couples. In all three cases, the issue was decided in a 4-3 ruling by the state high court.

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Northeast

Arizona’s voters pass Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.

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West

Voters in Florida pass Amendment 2 — which defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman — with more than the necessary 60% of the vote. The amendment also bans other legal arrangements that provide marriage-like benefits for same-sex couples.

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South
Thousands gather in West Hollywood on Wednesday night to voice anger over passage of Proposition 8.
Thousands gather in West Hollywood on Wednesday night to voice anger over passage of Proposition 8. (Barbara Davidson / Los Angeles Times)

California voters pass Proposition 8 — which amends the state Constitution to ban gay marriage — with about 52% of the vote. A 2000 ballot initiative banning gay marriage, Proposition 22, had passed with 61% of the vote but was later struck down by the state’s high court.

Tagged as
California
Proposition 8 foes rally in downtown Los Angeles.
Proposition 8 foes rally in downtown Los Angeles. (Barbara Davidson / Los Angeles Times)

The California Supreme Court votes 6 to 1 to review legal challenges to Proposition 8, but declines to permit gay weddings to resume pending a final decision.

Tagged as
California

A commission in New Jersey concludes that state legislators should allow gay couples to marry, setting up what could be a spirited debate over whether the state should be the first to allow gay marriage by passing a law, rather than by court mandate.

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Northeast

Wyoming legislators defeat an attempt to define marriage in the state constitution as a union between a man and a woman. The “Defense of Marriage” resolution fails 35 to 25. State law only recognizes heterosexual marriage but requires the state to recognize marriages performed elsewhere.

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West

The California Senate approves a resolution calling Proposition 8, the voter-approved ban on gay marriage, an improper revision of the California Constitution because it was not approved by the Legislature.

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California

Saying they suffered injustices under the Defense of Marriage Act, a dozen legally married same-sex spouses file suit against the federal government, alleging that the 1996 law deprives them of a range of benefits accorded other couples. Legal analysts predict the suit, filed in Boston, will take years before it makes its way through the federal court system.

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Northeast
Supporters and foes of Proposition 8 watch a large-screen television outside San Francisco City Hall.
Supporters and foes of Proposition 8 watch a large-screen television outside San Francisco City Hall. (Barbara Davidson / Los Angeles Times)

The California Supreme Court strongly indicates it will rule that Proposition 8 validly abolished the right for gays to marry but will allow same-sex couples who wed before the November election to remain legally married.

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California

The state House votes to make New Hampshire the third state to allow gay couples to marry, in addition to Massachusetts and Connecticut. The bill, passed 186 to 179, now goes to the Senate, where its future is uncertain. Gov. John Lynch opposes gay marriage but has not said specifically that he would veto it.

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Northeast
Nancy Robinson, left, and Laura Fefchak celebrate the state Supreme Court decision with friends.
Nancy Robinson, left, and Laura Fefchak celebrate the state Supreme Court decision with friends. (David K. Purdy / AP Photo)

The Iowa Supreme Court, citing California’s historic marriage decision, overturns a ban on same-sex marriage in a ruling that emphasizes the need for courts to protect minorities even when public sentiment is against them.

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Midwest
Sandi Cote-Whitacre, left, and her partner of 42 years, Bobbi Cote-Whitacre, take part in a rally after the passage of the same-sex marriage bill.
Sandi Cote-Whitacre, left, and her partner of 42 years, Bobbi Cote-Whitacre, take part in a rally after the passage of the same-sex marriage bill. (Toby Talbot / AP Photo)

The Vermont Legislature votes to permit same-sex couples to marry. The state is the first in the union to legalize gay marriage through a vote of lawmakers rather than a court action.

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Northeast

Colorado Gov. Bill Ritter signs the Designated Beneficiary Agreement Act, which extends inheritance, hospital visitation and other rights to gay couples. The law is scheduled to take effect July 1, 2009. In 2006, voters in the state passed a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage.

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West

New York Gov. David Paterson plans to introduce legislation to legalize same-sex marriage, reviving a bill that died in 2007. Paterson says “there is clearly a problem” when gays and lesbians in civil unions are denied civil protections such as healthcare and pension rights because they’re not married.

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Northeast

Washington, D.C., to recognize gay marriage

The city council in the nation’s capital votes 12 to 1 to recognize same-sex marriages from states that approve them, a first step to allowing gay marriages there. Congress has final say over the city’s laws and has 30 days to review the bill.

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South
Maine Democratic Sens. Joseph Perry, Dennis Damon, Bruce Bryant and Lawrence Bliss.
Maine Democratic Sens. Joseph Perry, Dennis Damon, Bruce Bryant and Lawrence Bliss. (Pat Wellenbach / AP Photo)

Maine becomes the fifth state to legalize gay marriage, which is scheduled to take effect in mid-September. Within hours of the governor’s signing of the bill, opponents to gay marriage begin working to gather signatures for a so-called People’s Veto.

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Northeast

Washington Gov. Chris Gregoire signs legislation giving registered same-sex domestic partners all the rights and benefits that the state now offers married couples. The law is scheduled to take effect July 26. Opponents, however, are trying to overturn the law at the ballot box in November. If they can gather 120,577 signatures by July 25 the new law will be suspended until the November vote.

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West

The California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8’s ban on same-sex marriage but rules that gay couples who wed before the election will continue to be married under state law. The decision virtually ensures another fight at the ballot box over marriage rights for gays. Gay rights activists say they may ask voters to repeal the marriage ban as early as next year, and opponents have pledged to fight any such effort. Proposition 8 passed with 52% of the vote.

Tagged as
California

Gay marriage battle resumes as Prop. 8 is challenged in court

Opening a new front in California’s gay marriage battle, prominent attorneys working for a project of the American Foundation for Equal Rights announce they will file suit in federal court. The suit calls for an injunction against Proposition 8 and the immediate reinstatement of marriage rights for same-sex couples.

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California

Nevada legislators override Gov. Jim Gibbons’ veto of a domestic partnership law that grants rights to gay and straight couples. The contract essentially gives unmarried couples the same rights and responsibilities as married couples. It is scheduled to go into effect Oct. 1, 2009.

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West

Gov. John Lynch signs a bill legalizing gay marriage in his state, the same day the measure passed the New Hampshire’s legislative houses. Lynch had promised a veto if the law didn’t clearly spell out that churches and religious groups would not be required to officiate at gay marriages or provide other services. The law is scheduled to take effect Jan. 1, 2010. Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Vermont and Iowa already allow gay marriage.

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Northeast

Colorado’s Designated Beneficiary Agreement Act takes effect

The act extends inheritance, hospital visitation and other rights to gay couples. In 2006, voters in Colorado passed a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage.

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West

The lawsuit, filed in federal court in Boston, says that same-sex couples who have married in Massachusetts since the state began performing gay marriages in 2004 are being unfairly denied federal benefits given to heterosexual couples.

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Northeast

Implementation of Washington’s 2009 domestic partnership bill on hold

Implementation of the domestic partnership bill, which was scheduled to take effect July 26, is put on hold. Sponsors of Referendum 71, which would block the law from going into effect, have filed their petition signatures with the state’s Election Division. If there are enough valid signatures (120,577), the question of whether or not to repeal the law will go on the November ballot. If there are not enough signatures the law becomes effective immediately.

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West

Wisconsin’s domestic partnership law takes effect. The law provides same-sex couples who register as domestic partners with certain limited legal protections that include hospital visitation rights, end-of-life decision making and the ability to take Family Medical Leave.

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Midwest

Opponents of same-sex marriage launch a campaign to renew a ban on gay marriage in Iowa. The National Organization for Marriage, which was active in getting Proposition 8 approved by voters in California, sent out an appeal for donations to run advertisements on behalf of political candidates who oppose same-sex marriage. It said the first ad would support Republican Stephen Burgmeier, who supports putting the issue of same-sex marriage to a vote in the Hawkeye State. He is up for election in less than two weeks.

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Midwest

Washington’s Referendum 71 will be on the November ballot. The referendum will ask voters to approve or reject the recent bill expanding benefits for domestic partners.

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West

Nevada’s domestic partnership law takes effect

The domestic partnership law grants unmarried couples the same rights and responsibilities as married couples. In May, legislators overrode Gov. Jim Gibbons’ veto of the law.

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West

A federal judge declines to dismiss a constitutional challenge to Proposition 8, ruling the voter-approved ban on same-sex marriage raised legal and factual issues that required a trial.

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California

Maine’s gay marriage law is rejected

Voters reject the state’s gay marriage law. The law, originally scheduled to take effect in mid-September, was never enacted. It was put on hold after opponents launched a petition drive to place a measure to repeal gay marriage on the November ballot.

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Northeast

Voters in Washington approve Referendum 71 by 52%. It asked voters to reconfirm the legislature’s recent expansion of domestic partnership rights. Dubbed the “everything but marriage” law, it expanded previous domestic partnership laws to include issues like adoption, child support, pensions and other public-employee benefits.

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West

New York state senators reject legislation that would have allowed gay marriage. The measure, which had already passed the Assembly, was defeated in a 24-38 vote.

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Northeast

New Hampshire’s same-sex marriage law takes effect.

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Northeast

Darlene Garner and Candy Holmes walk down the aisle and become among the first gay couples to legally marry in the District of Columbia.

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South

Hawaii’s House of Representatives approves a measure allowing same-sex civil unions. The House voted 31 to 20 in favor of the legislation, which would grant same-sex couples the same rights and benefits provided to married couples. The Senate passed the measure in January. Gov. Linda Lingle has not said if she will sign the bill into law.

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West

Five months after the landmark federal trial over banning same-sex marriage began, U.S. District Judge Vaughn R. Walker presided over closing arguments, prodding attorneys for five hours about subjects sexual, fundamental, legal and historical.

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California

The Wisconsin Supreme Court upheld the state’s constitutional ban on gay marriage and civil unions. The court’s 7-0 ruling concluded that the constitutional amendment was properly put to voters in the 2006 referendum.

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Midwest
Gov. Linda Lingle vetoed legislation that would have allowed civil unions.
Gov. Linda Lingle vetoed legislation that would have allowed civil unions. (Eugene Tanner / AP Photo)

Hawaii Gov. Linda Lingle vetoes legislation that would have permitted same-sex unions. The bill had been approved by the Legislature in late April.

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West

U.S. District Judge Joseph Tauro rules in favor of same-sex couples’ rights in two separate challenges to the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act. Tauro ruled that a federal gay marriage ban is unconstitutional.

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Northeast
A rally in West Hollywood after a decision by U.S. Chief Judge Vaughn R. Walker overturned Proposition 8.
A rally in West Hollywood after a decision by U.S. Chief Judge Vaughn R. Walker overturned Proposition 8. (Los Angeles Times)

A federal judge in San Francisco rules that gays and lesbians have a constitutional right to marry, striking down Proposition 8, the voter approved ballot measure that banned same-sex unions. U.S. District Chief Judge Vaughn R. Walker said Proposition 8, passed by voters in November 2008, violates the federal constitutional rights of gays and lesbians to marry the partners of their choice. His ruling is expected to be appealed to the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals and then up to the U.S. Supreme Court.

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California

9th Circuit judges decide to hear arguments in December but put marriages on hold for now

A federal appeals court puts same-sex marriage in California on hold at least until December. The panel’s decision gave no explanation for staying Judge Vaughn R. Walker’s order directing the state to once again allow same-sex couples to marry. The panel said the court would hear the Proposition 8 challenge on an expedited basis and hold arguments the week of Dec. 6. Another panel of three judges is expected to rule on the appeal.

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California

9th Circuit judges explore narrow routes to reinstate gay marriage

Federal appeals court judges seem headed toward a decision that could reinstate same-sex marriages in California while avoiding a ruling of national sweep that would invite U.S. Supreme Court action. The judges explore at least two routes that could achieve that goal.

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California

A panel of federal appeals court judges asks for guidance on the seemingly technical, but perhaps decisive, issue of who has the legal right to defend the ballot initiative on appeal, what is known in court as “standing.”

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California

The new regulations apply to all hospitals receiving funds from the federal government under the Medicaid and Medicare programs for the needy and elderly. Under the regulations, hospitals may not place any restrictions on visitation based on sexual orientation.

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United States

Wyoming state representatives pass HB 74. The bill, which bans recognition of civil unions and same-sex marriages performed outside the state, goes to the Senate where its chances for passage are good.

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West

The Wyoming House Judiciary Committee on a 5-4 vote defeats House Bill 150, which would have established civil unions in Wyoming.

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West

Illinois is the sixth state to recognize civil unions or domestic partnerships for same-sex couples.

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Midwest

Hawaii Gov. Neil Abercrombie signs a bill allowing civil unions. The law grants all couples the ability to enter into a civil union, with the rights, benefits, protections and responsibilities of traditional marriage. Civil unions were set to begin Jan. 1, 2012.

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West
(Los Angeles Times)

The Obama administration announces it will no longer oppose legal challenges to the Defense of Marriage Act. The administration says the act discriminates against gays and therefore can no longer be accepted as reasonable.

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United States

The Wyoming Senate votes down House Bill 74, which would have banned recognition of same-sex marriages performed out of the state.

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West

A historic effort to legalize same-sex marriage in Maryland ends for the year after the House of Delegates ended debate without taking a vote.

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South

Senate Democrats introduce legislation to repeal the Defense of Marriage Act, a law the Obama administration says it will not defend in court. The measure prevents gay couples from receiving federal rights extended to heterosexual couples.

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United States

Gay marriage won’t be allowed to resume until state and federal appeals courts decide the fate of Proposition 8, the voter initiative that limited marriage to heterosexual couples, three federal judges rule.

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California

In a 26 to 15 vote, Delaware’s House of Representatives approve the proposal to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples. The measure, which passed the state Senate a week earlier, now goes to Gov. Jack Markell, who has pledged to sign the bill into law.

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Northeast

Delaware Gov. Jack Markell signs a bill allowing same-sex unions. The measure, which will provide legal protections and benefits for same-sex couples, is set to go into effect Jan. 1, 2012.

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Northeast

One day after getting their civil union licenses, more than 30 gay couples participate in civil union ceremonies in Chicago’s Millennium Park.

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Midwest
Gov. Andrew Cuomo celebrates
Gov. Andrew Cuomo celebrates (Mike Groll / Associated Press)

The New York State Legislature gave final approval to a bill permitting same-sex marriage. Gov. Andrew Cuomo signed the bill just before midnight, making New York the sixth state, and the most populous by far, to permit same-sex marriage.

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Northeast

The Rhode Island Senate votes, 21 to 16, to pass a bill legalizing civil unions. The legislation had previously been approved by the House in a 62-to-11 vote. Gov. Lincoln D.Chafee had stated that he would sign the measure.

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Northeast
 Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee in May 2012
Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee in May 2012 (Steven Senne / Associated Press)

Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln D. Chafee signs bill allowing gay couples to enter civil unions. He calls the bill a step toward full marriage rights, even as he expresses reservations about the measure. He says the bill fails to give gay couples the full rights given to heterosexual couples and that he has concerns about the exemptions given to religious groups.

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Northeast
Luz and Nastassia Heurtelou wait for their marriage certificate to be printed after their civil wedding in Brooklyn.
Luz and Nastassia Heurtelou wait for their marriage certificate to be printed after their civil wedding in Brooklyn. (Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)

New York’s law allowing same-sex marriage goes into effect. New York is the sixth and most populous state to permit same-sex marriage.

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Northeast

The battle over Proposition 8 goes before the state Supreme Court on Sept. 6. The justices will then have 90 days to decide whether state law gives proponents of ballot measures legal standing to defend them in court.

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California

The California Supreme Court appears ready to rule that the backers of Proposition 8 and other ballot measures have the right to defend them in court, a stance that would give opponents of same-sex marriage the chance to champion the initiative all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court.

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California

The North Carolina Senate votes to ask voters to decide in May whether to adopt a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. The state Senate voted, 30-16, in favor of putting the question on the statewide primary ballot. The House had already approved the measure.

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South

The California Supreme Court decides that the sponsors of Proposition 8 and other ballot measures are entitled to defend them in court when the state refuses to do so, a ruling likely to spur federal courts to decide the constitutionality of same-sex marriage bans.

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California

Hawaii’s law allowing all couples to enter into civil unions goes into effect.

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West

More than 400 people witness Delaware’s first same-sex civil union. Lawyers Lisa Goodman and Drewry Fennell are joined in a ceremony at Trinity Episcopal Church in Wilmington.

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Northeast

A federal appeals court strikes down California’s ban on same-sex marriage, clearing the way for the U.S. Supreme Court to rule on gay marriage.

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California

In a 55-to-43 vote, Washington’s House of Representatives passes a bill legalizing gay marriage. The Senate had already approved the measure. Gov. Chris Gregoire is expected to sign the bill into law next week.

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West
Gov. Chris Gregoire, seated, with legislators and supporters after signing a bill allowing gay marriage.
Gov. Chris Gregoire, seated, with legislators and supporters after signing a bill allowing gay marriage. (Elaine Thompson / Associated Press)

Washington Gov. Chris Gregoire signs legislation giving same-sex couples the same right to a marriage license as anyone else. The law is set to go into effect June 7, but opponents plan to challenge the bill.

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West

In a 42-to-33 vote, members of New Jersey’s Assembly pass a bill approving gay marriage. The Senate had already approved the measure, which Gov. Chris Christie is expected to veto.

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Northeast
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie in January 2012
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie in January 2012 (Mel Evans / Associated Press)

New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie vetoes the gay marriage bill.

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Northeast

U.S. District Court Judge Jeffrey S. White declares the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutional and orders the federal government to ignore the statute and provide health benefits to the wife of a lesbian federal court employee.

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United States

The Maryland Senate passes a gay marriage bill by a 25-to-22 vote. The measure moves to Gov. Martin O’Malley, who sponsored the bill and is likely to sign it.

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South
Maryland Gov. Martin O'Malley in May 2012
Maryland Gov. Martin O'Malley in May 2012 (Cliff Owen / AP Photo)

Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley signs the gay marriage bill. The law is set to take effect Jan. 1, 2013, if it survives a challenge by opponents, who are already gathering signatures for a referendum.

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South
Signs in support of and against a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage greet voters at a polling station in Raleigh, N.C.
Signs in support of and against a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage greet voters at a polling station in Raleigh, N.C. (Gerry Broome / Associated Press)

Voters in North Carolina pass an amendment to the state constitution that defines marriage as the legal union of a man and a woman.

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South

Voters in North Carolina approve Amendment One, a fiercely debated and highly restrictive amendment to the state constitution that defines marriage as the legal union of a man and a woman. The amendment not only outlaws same-sex marriage — already illegal in the state — but bans civil unions and domestic partnerships for gay or straight couples.

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South
(Los Angeles Times)

The U.S. appeals court in Boston rules that the federal Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional. The court says DOMA unfairly denies equal benefits to legally married same-sex couples.

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United States

The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals votes not to review a three-judge panel’s decision to overturn the voter-approved 2008 state constitutional amendment. The legal battle is now headed to the U.S. Supreme Court, the final chapter in four years of litigation over the constitutionality of Proposition 8’s ban on gay marriage.

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California

Referendum 74 gives voters a chance to approve or reject Washington’s newly passed law that allows gay marriage. The measure, which was supposed to take effect June 7, was put on hold when opponents submitted more than 230,000 signatures calling for a referendum.

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West

Opponents of same-sex marriage ask the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn a federal appeals court decision that struck down Proposition 8, the 2008 California ballot initiative that limited marriage to a man and a woman.

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California
Edith Windsor sued the government for telling her to pay $363,000 in federal estate taxes after the death of her legal spouse, Thea Spyer.
Edith Windsor sued the government for telling her to pay $363,000 in federal estate taxes after the death of her legal spouse, Thea Spyer. (Richard Drew / AP)

The U.S. 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals in New York strikes down part of the Defense of Marriage Act and becomes the first to say that gays and lesbians are a minority group deserving of special protection from discrimination under the Constitution.

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United States

Voters in Maryland uphold the legalization of same-sex marriage. Couples can obtain marriage licenses beginning Jan. 1.

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South
Ashley Gorczyga, of Portland, attends a rally in support for gay marriage in downtown Portland, Maine.
Ashley Gorczyga, of Portland, attends a rally in support for gay marriage in downtown Portland, Maine. (Robert F. Bukaty / Associated Press)

Voters in Maine back same-sex marriage at the ballot box. Same-sex couples should be able to obtain marriage licenses by early January.

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Northeast

Minnesota voters reject a proposed constitutional amendment banning gay marriage, with 52% of voters rejecting the amendment and 48% supporting it.

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Midwest
Revelers celebrate early election returns favoring Washington state Referendum 74, during a large impromptu street gathering in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood.
Revelers celebrate early election returns favoring Washington state Referendum 74, during a large impromptu street gathering in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood. (Ted S. Warren / Associated Press)

Washington joins Maine and Maryland in passing a same-sex marriage measure on the ballot. Same-sex couples couple can apply for marriage licenses in early December.

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West

The Supreme Court sets the stage for a historic decision on gay rights, announcing it would hear appeals of rulings striking down California’s Proposition 8 and the federal law denying benefits for legally married same-sex couples.

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United States

The U.S. Supreme Court announces it will rule for the first time on same-sex marriage by deciding the constitutionality of Proposition 8.

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California

In Maryland, the first state south of the Mason-Dixon line, gay marriage becomes legal.

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South

The Illinois Sen­ate passes legislation to allow same-sex marriage. The measure, which Gov. Pat Quinn has promised to sign, now goes to the House.

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Midwest

The Obama administration endorses a constitutional right to marry for gays and lesbians, urging the Supreme Court to strike down California’s voter-passed law barring same-sex marriage as well as laws in at least the seven other states that already provide civil unions. “Tradition, no matter how long established, cannot by itself justify a discriminatory law,” the administration said in a brief filed with the high court. “Prejudice may not be the basis for differential treatment under the law.”

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United States
The Supreme Court building in Washington
The Supreme Court building in Washington (Carolyn Kaster / AP Photo)

The U.S Su­preme Court hears or­al ar­gu­ments on the con­sti­tu­tion­al­ity of Cali­for­nia’s Pro­pos­i­tion 8, which banned same-sex mar­riage.

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United States
Rhode Island state Sen. Donna Nesselbush reacts seconds after the state Senate passed a same-sex marriage bill. Nesselbush was the main sponsor of the bill.
Rhode Island state Sen. Donna Nesselbush reacts seconds after the state Senate passed a same-sex marriage bill. Nesselbush was the main sponsor of the bill. (Steven Senne / Associated Press)

The Rhode Island Senate passes a bill that could clear the way for same-sex weddings to begin this summer. The bill passed 26 to 12 after about 90 minutes of debate and is due to take effect Aug. 1, assuming nothing blocks what is seen as a routine vote in the House and the signature of Gov. Lincoln Chafee.

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Northeast
Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee signs a gay marriage bill into law outside the State House in Providence, R.I.
Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee signs a gay marriage bill into law outside the State House in Providence, R.I. (Charles Krupa / AP Phote)

Rhode Island became the nation’s 10th state to allow gay and lesbian couples to wed. Gov. Lincoln Chafee, an independent, signs the bill into law following a final 56-15 vote in the House. The first weddings will take place Aug. 1, when the law takes effect.

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Northeast
Delaware Gov. Jack Markell signs the marriage equality bill on the steps of Legislative Hall in Dover, Del. after it was approved by the Delaware Senate earlier in the afternoon.
Delaware Gov. Jack Markell signs the marriage equality bill on the steps of Legislative Hall in Dover, Del. after it was approved by the Delaware Senate earlier in the afternoon. (Daniel Sato / AP Photo/The Wilmington News-Journal)

The Delaware Senate approves a bill legalizing gay marriage, sending it to Gov. Jack Markell, who signs the measure into law. The law takes effect July 1.

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Northeast
Cindy Amberger, left, and her partner, Lynne Hvidsten celebrate after the Minnesota House passed the gay marriage bill.
Cindy Amberger, left, and her partner, Lynne Hvidsten celebrate after the Minnesota House passed the gay marriage bill. (Jim Mone / AP Photo)

In a 75-59 vote, the Minnesota House passes a bill that will allow same-sex weddings to begin this summer.

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Midwest
State Sen. Scott Dibble, left, sponsor of a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in Minnesota, greets a crowd with his partner, Richard Leyva, at the Capitol.
State Sen. Scott Dibble, left, sponsor of a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in Minnesota, greets a crowd with his partner, Richard Leyva, at the Capitol. (Ben Garvin / St. Paul Pioneer Press)

Four days after the Minnesota House approved legislation to make same-sex marriage legal, the Senate OKs the measure in a 37-30 vote.

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Midwest
Minnesota Gov. Mark Dayton signs the gay marriage bill in front of the state Capitol. Sen. Scott Dibble, second from left, and Rep. Karen Clark, right, both gay lawmakers and sponsors of the bill, are among those watching the signing.
Minnesota Gov. Mark Dayton signs the gay marriage bill in front of the state Capitol. Sen. Scott Dibble, second from left, and Rep. Karen Clark, right, both gay lawmakers and sponsors of the bill, are among those watching the signing. (Jim Mone / Associated Press)

Minnesota Gov. Mark Dayton signs a bill making gay marriage legal in Minnesota. When the law takes effect Aug. 1, Minnesota will become the 12th state to allow same-sex marriage.

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Midwest
Rep. Elaine Nekritz, D-Buffalo Grove, consoles Rep. Kelly Cassidy, D-Chicago, after a gay marriage bill wasn’t called to the floor of the Illinois House because there weren’t enough votes.
Rep. Elaine Nekritz, D-Buffalo Grove, consoles Rep. Kelly Cassidy, D-Chicago, after a gay marriage bill wasn’t called to the floor of the Illinois House because there weren’t enough votes. (Ted Schurter / The State Journal-Register)

With the state poised to become the 13th to approve same-sex marriage, supporters in the Illinois House fail to muster enough support to call the bill for a vote.

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Midwest
A poster supporting the freedom to marry hangs in the front window of a hardware store on Santa Monica Boulevard the evening before the Supreme Court decision on Prop. 8 in West Hollywood, Calif.
A poster supporting the freedom to marry hangs in the front window of a hardware store on Santa Monica Boulevard the evening before the Supreme Court decision on Prop. 8 in West Hollywood, Calif. (Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times / June 25, 2013)

The U.S. Supreme Court clears the way for same-sex marriages to resume in California as the justices, in a procedural ruling, turn away the defenders of Proposition 8.

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California
The Supreme Court justices sit for their official photograph in 2010. Seated from left are: Associate Justices Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John Roberts, Associate Justices Anthony M. Kennedy and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Standing from left are: Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen Breyer, Samuel Alito Jr. and Elena Kagan.
The Supreme Court justices sit for their official photograph in 2010. Seated from left are: Associate Justices Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John Roberts, Associate Justices Anthony M. Kennedy and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Standing from left are: Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen Breyer, Samuel Alito Jr. and Elena Kagan. (Tim Sloan /AFP/Getty Images)

The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a key part of the federal Defense of Marriage Act, ruling that legally married same-sex couples are entitled to the same rights as all other married couples.

The court also opens the door for same-sex marriages to resume in California by turning away the defenders of the state’s Proposition 8.

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United States

The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals clears the way for gay marriages to resume in California. The court lifts its stay on an injunction which had ordered state officials to stop enforcing Proposition 8. With the court’s action, counties can now begin issuing same-sex marriage licenses.

The California Department of Public Health tells all county clerks and recorders to begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples “effective immediately.”

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California
The first couple married in Minneapolis Cathy ten Broeke, left, and Margaret Miles cut their wedding cake at The Hotel Minneapolis Thursday Aug. 1, 2013.
The first couple married in Minneapolis Cathy ten Broeke, left, and Margaret Miles cut their wedding cake at The Hotel Minneapolis Thursday Aug. 1, 2013. (Glen Stubbe / AP Photo/Star Tribune)

Cathy ten Broeke and Margaret Miles are the first couple legally wed in Minnesota. Minneapolis Mayor R.T. Rybak marries the couple on the marble steps of the City Hall Rotunda.

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Midwest
Lisa Kesser, right, and her partner of 20 years Dorcey Baker, both of Providence, R.I., obtain a marriage license from chief clerk Gina DiRuzzo-Beeley, left, at City Hall, in Providence.
Lisa Kesser, right, and her partner of 20 years Dorcey Baker, both of Providence, R.I., obtain a marriage license from chief clerk Gina DiRuzzo-Beeley, left, at City Hall, in Providence. (Steven Senne / AP Photo)

For the first time local officials in Rhode Island issue marriage licenses to gay couples.

Tagged as
Northeast
Gail Stockman, left, and Beth Black of Albuquerque, N.M., are shown with other couples preparing to marry at a massive wedding in Albuquerque Civic Plaza on Aug. 27, 2013.
Gail Stockman, left, and Beth Black of Albuquerque, N.M., are shown with other couples preparing to marry at a massive wedding in Albuquerque Civic Plaza on Aug. 27, 2013. (Russell Contreras / Associated Press)

Following an order by New Mexico District Judge Alan M. Malott, the Bernalillo County Clerk’s office begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

The order, which affects the state’s largest city, Albuquerque, comes after both Santa Fe County and Dona Ana County began issuing marriage licenses last week.

New Mexico state laws do not explicitly allow or forbid same-sex marriage, although they had been interpreted as restricting the practice.

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West
Beth Asaro, left, and Joanne Schailey celebrate after exchanging vows to become the first same-sex couple married in Lambertville, N.J.
Beth Asaro, left, and Joanne Schailey celebrate after exchanging vows to become the first same-sex couple married in Lambertville, N.J. (Rich Schultz / Associated Press)

Beth Asaro and Joanne Schailey become among the first gay couples to wed in New Jersey, the 14th state to permit same-sex marriage.

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Northeast
Illinois Rep. Greg Harris (D-Chicago), left, is congratulated by lawmakers after gay marriage legislation passes in the state House. Gov. Pat Quinn is center.
Illinois Rep. Greg Harris (D-Chicago), left, is congratulated by lawmakers after gay marriage legislation passes in the state House. Gov. Pat Quinn is center. (Seth Perlman / Associated Press )

Both chambers of the Illinois Legislature approve a measure that legalizes gay marriage. Gov. Pat Quinn is expected to sign the bill into law.

Under the measure, gay couples could begin getting married in Illinois in June.

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Midwest
Gov. Neil Abercrombie, center, poses with legislators and supporters after he signed the bill legalizing gay marriage.
Gov. Neil Abercrombie, center, poses with legislators and supporters after he signed the bill legalizing gay marriage. (Craig T. Kojima / Honolulu Star-Advertiser)

Hawaii Gov. Neil Abercrombie signs a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The law goes into effect Dec. 2.

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West
llinois Gov. Pat Quinn holds up the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act.
llinois Gov. Pat Quinn holds up the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act. (Charles Rex Arbogast / Associated Press)

Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn signs legislation legalizing same-sex marriage. When the law takes ef­fect June 1, Illinois will be­come the 16th state to al­low gay mar­riage.

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Midwest
Staff Sgt. Aisha McClain, left, and Shannelle Williams kiss after getting married at the Doña Ana County Government Center.
Staff Sgt. Aisha McClain, left, and Shannelle Williams kiss after getting married at the Doña Ana County Government Center. (Robin Zielinski / AP Photo/The Las Cruces Sun-News)

New Mexico’s highest court unanimously rules it is unconstitutional to deny a marriage license to same-sex couples, making it the 17th state to legalize gay weddings.

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West
Seth Anderson, left, and Michael Ferguson, right, hold up their marriage certificate and license outside of the Salt Lake County Clerk's Office.
Seth Anderson, left, and Michael Ferguson, right, hold up their marriage certificate and license outside of the Salt Lake County Clerk's Office. (Kim Raff / AP Photo)

U.S. District Judge Robert J. Shelby strikes down Utah’s same-sex marriage ban.

Tagged as
West

The U.S. Supreme Court puts same-sex marriages on hold in Utah until a federal appeals court can rule on whether the state law banning the practice violates the Constitution.

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West

U.S. District Judge Terence Kern rules that Oklahoma’s ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. Kern suspends his decision while it is appealed to higher courts.

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South
Greg Bourke, front, and his partner Michael Deleon speak to reporters following the announcement from U.S. District Judge John G. Heyburn.
Greg Bourke, front, and his partner Michael Deleon speak to reporters following the announcement from U.S. District Judge John G. Heyburn. (Timothy D. Easley / AP Photo)

A federal judge strikes down part of Kentucky’s same-sex marriage ban. U.S. District Judge John G. Heyburn orders Kentucky to recognize same-sex marriages legally performed in other states and opens the door wide for activists to strike down Kentucky’s ban entirely.

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South
Virginia Attorney General Mark Herring speaks at a news conference  applauding the decision by a federal judge to strike down Virginia's ban on gay marriage.
Virginia Attorney General Mark Herring speaks at a news conference applauding the decision by a federal judge to strike down Virginia's ban on gay marriage. (Zach Gibson / Getty Images)

A federal judge in Virginia invalidates the state’s ban on same-sex marriage but stays her ruling pending appeal. U.S. District Judge Arenda L. Wright Allen in Norfolk strikes down the state’s ban as unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.

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South
Charlie Gurion, center, and David Wilk hold up their marriage license as Cook County Clerk David Orr, left, looks on.
Charlie Gurion, center, and David Wilk hold up their marriage license as Cook County Clerk David Orr, left, looks on. (M. Spencer Green / AP Photo)

U.S. District Judge Sharon Johnson Coleman rules that same-sex couples in Cook County can apply for marriage licenses. For the moment, Coleman’s ruling applies only to Cook County.

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Midwest
Couples, from left, Cleopatra De Leon and Nicole Dimetman, and Mark Phariss and Victor Holmes, give a news conference in San Antonio after U.S.  Judge Orlando Garcia's ruling.
Couples, from left, Cleopatra De Leon and Nicole Dimetman, and Mark Phariss and Victor Holmes, give a news conference in San Antonio after U.S. Judge Orlando Garcia's ruling. (Jerry Lara / AP Photo/San Antonio Express-News)

U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia in San Antonio overturns the state’s ban on same-sex marriage but stays his ruling pending appeals. Garcia writes that the prohibition is unconstitutional and stigmatizes gay couples.

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South

A federal judge strikes down Michigan’s gay marriage ban, and four counties open their offices the next day to issue licenses. But late on March 22, the U.S. 6th Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati orders a temporary halt to the marriage ceremonies by issuing an emergency stay. A few days later, the appeals court makes the stay permanent, pending a review of the case.

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Midwest

A county judge in Arkansas strikes down his state’s constitutional ban on gay marriage, saying in his ruling that it did not advance “any conceivable legitimate state interest.”

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South
Same-sex marriage supporters gather on the steps of the Idaho Statehouse in Boise after U.S. Magistrate Judge Candy Wagahoff Dale ruled that Idaho's ban on gay marriage is unconstitutional.
Same-sex marriage supporters gather on the steps of the Idaho Statehouse in Boise after U.S. Magistrate Judge Candy Wagahoff Dale ruled that Idaho's ban on gay marriage is unconstitutional. (Kyle Green / AP Photo/The Idaho Statesman)

Idaho’s same-sex marriage ban is declared unconstitutional. “Marriage is a fundamental right of all citizens, which neither tradition nor the majority may deny,” a federal judge wrote in her opinion. Two days later, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals puts a temporary hold on the ruling, preventing same-sex marriages from beginning.

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West

The Arkansas Supreme Court halts the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples by granting a request to stay a lower court ruling that had invalidated laws against gay marriage. Hundreds of gays and lesbians had married since a ruling a week earlier that the state’s ban on gay marriage was unconstitutional.

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South
Julia Fraser, left, and Jessica Rohrbacher get married.
Julia Fraser, left, and Jessica Rohrbacher get married. (Steve Dykes / AP Photo)

A federal judge in Oregon throws out the state’s same-sex marriage ban, saying it is unconstitutional and discriminatory, placing gays and lesbians “at a disadvantage … without any rationally related government purpose.” Shortly after the ruling, proponents of same-sex marriage said that marriage licenses were issued in Multnomah County, home to Portland.

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West
Ashley Wilson, left, and Lindsay Vandermay react after getting their marriage license at the Philadelphia Marriage Bureau in City Hall.
Ashley Wilson, left, and Lindsay Vandermay react after getting their marriage license at the Philadelphia Marriage Bureau in City Hall. (Matt Slocum / AP Photo)

U.S. District Judge John Jones III, sitting in Harrisburg, Pa., rules that the state’s 1996 ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The action means that all nine Northeast states have legalized same-sex marriage.

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Northeast
Alicia Atkinson, left, and Laurin Fabry, right, convert their civil union to a marriage license at the DuPage County Clerk's office in Wheaton, Ill.
Alicia Atkinson, left, and Laurin Fabry, right, convert their civil union to a marriage license at the DuPage County Clerk's office in Wheaton, Ill. (Bev Horne / AP Photo/Daily Herald)

Legislation that legalized same-sex marriage goes into effect. Illinois is one of 19 states to allow gay marriage.

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Midwest
Bruce Carlson, right, shows off his ceremonial marriage license to wed his partner, Matt Friday, left, at the Lane County courthouse in Eugene, Ore.
Bruce Carlson, right, shows off his ceremonial marriage license to wed his partner, Matt Friday, left, at the Lane County courthouse in Eugene, Ore. (Paul Carter / Register-Guard)

Same-sex marriage in Oregon wins another skirmish as the U.S. Supreme Court refuses to stop gay men and lesbians from marrying as requested by the National Organization for Marriage.

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West
Jill Winkler, left, and Pamela Dietzler exchange rings as they are married at the Milwaukee County Courthouse.
Jill Winkler, left, and Pamela Dietzler exchange rings as they are married at the Milwaukee County Courthouse. (Jeffrey Phelps / Associated Press)

A judge throws out Wisconsin’s ban on gay marriage, prompting a wave of confusion and celebration statewide.

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Midwest

A federal judge strikes down Indiana’s ban on gay marriage, saying it violates the U.S. Constitution’s equal-protection clause.

U.S. District Judge Richard Young’s ruling does not have a stay on it, and couples begin marrying immediately.

The Indiana attorney general’s office says it will ask for a stay while it appeals the ruling.

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Midwest

The Denver-based U.S. 10th Circuit Court of Appeals rules that states, in this case Utah, can’t bar gay marriage — the first such ruling from a federal appeals court.

In a split decision, two judges on the panel strongly back a constitutional right to same-sex marriage, while the other concurred in part but mainly dissented. The ruling, which upheld a lower-court decision, was stayed to allow time for Utah to appeal the case.

Utah officials say they will fight all the way to the Supreme Court to uphold the state’s ban on gay marriage.

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West
Plaintiffs Sue Barton, her partner Dr. Gay Phillips, Sharon Baldwin, and her partner Mary Bishop have a champagne toast during a celebration of a decision by the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals.
Plaintiffs Sue Barton, her partner Dr. Gay Phillips, Sharon Baldwin, and her partner Mary Bishop have a champagne toast during a celebration of a decision by the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals. (James Gibbard / AP Photo/Tulsa World)

A three-judge panel of the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals strikes down Oklahoma’s ban on same-sex marriage. The panel’s decision is immediately put on hold.

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South

U.S. District Judge Raymond Moore rules that Colorado’s ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The ruling is immediately stayed pending an appeal.

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West

Jackson County Circuit Judge J. Dale Youngs strikes down part of Missouri’s gay marriage ban, ordering the state to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states.

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Midwest

The U.S. Supreme Court turns down all the pending state appeals in the gay-marriage cases, leaving intact rulings in five more states that said gays and lesbians have a constitutional right to marry.

This action means that same-sex marriage is legal now in Utah, Oklahoma, Virgina, Indiana and Wisconsin.

Tagged as
United States

The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals strikes down gay marriage bans in the West, specifically rejecting bans in Idaho and Nevada. The court’s ruling also applies to Alaska, Arizona and Montana. Licenses are not being issued in Arizona and Montana.

Tagged as
West
Antioco Carrillo, left, and Theo Small display their marriage license issued at the Clark County Marriage Bureau in Las Vegas, Nev.
Antioco Carrillo, left, and Theo Small display their marriage license issued at the Clark County Marriage Bureau in Las Vegas, Nev. (Ethan Miller / Getty Images)

Nevada begins issuing marriage licenses after the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals declares same-sex marriages legal in the state.

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West

A federal District Court judge rules that North Carolina’s ban on gay marriages is unconstitutional, and officials begin issuing marriage licenses.

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South

A federal judge issues a ruling allowing gay marriages in Alaska after the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the week before that same-sex marriage bans violate the rights of gay couples.

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West

County clerks in Idaho begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples after the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the week before that same-sex marriage bans violate the rights of gay couples.

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Midwest
Laura Anne Chapman, left, and Jamie Whelan show their marriage certificate in Flagstaff, Ariz.
Laura Anne Chapman, left, and Jamie Whelan show their marriage certificate in Flagstaff, Ariz. (Jake Bacon / Arizona Daily Sun)

U.S. District Court Judge John Sedwick strikes down Arizona’s gay marriage ban and declines to issue a stay of his ruling. The state’s attorney general directs clerks to start issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

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West

Wyoming Atty. Gen. Peter Michael says the state won’t appeal the U.S. District Court ruling striking down the state’s ban on same-sex marriage. Same-sex couples can apply for marriage licenses.

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West

St. Louis Circuit Judge Rex M. Burlison overturns Missouri’s ban on gay marriage, but only St. Louis begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

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Midwest

U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor orders a stay that temporarily blocks Kansas from issuing same-sex marriage licenses.

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Midwest
Shelly Walston, left, and Mallory Rine swear their information is correct as they pick up their marriage license application at the Sedgwick County Courthouse in Wichita, Kan.
Shelly Walston, left, and Mallory Rine swear their information is correct as they pick up their marriage license application at the Sedgwick County Courthouse in Wichita, Kan. (Mike Hutmacher / The Wichita Eagle)

The U.S. Supreme Court ends a Nov. 10 stay that temporarily prevented Kansas from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. The state insists the ruling applies to only two counties, Douglas and Sedgwick.

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Midwest
Patrick Donnelly, left, and his partner Ben Bahnsen pose with their marriage license at the Gallatin County Law and Justice Center in Bozeman, Mont.
Patrick Donnelly, left, and his partner Ben Bahnsen pose with their marriage license at the Gallatin County Law and Justice Center in Bozeman, Mont. (Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez / Bozeman Daily Chronicle)

A federal judge strikes down Montana’s ban on same-sex marriage. U.S. District Judge Brian Morris rules that the ban violates the equal protection clause in the 14th Amendment. The court’s ruling is effective immediately.

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West

In a 7-2 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court denies a last-minute request for a stay of rulings allowing same-sex marriages. The denial clears the way for officials in South Carolina to begin issuing marriage licenses.

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South

U.S. District Judge Kristin Baker strikes down Arkansas’ gay marriage ban. She puts her ruling on hold.

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South

U.S. District Judge Carlton Reeves strikes down Mississippi’s gay marriage ban. He immediately puts his ruling on hold. Reeves wrote, “The 14th Amendment operates to remove the blinders of inequality from our eyes. Though we cherish our traditional values, they must give way to constitutional wisdom.”

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South

The U.S. Supreme Court refuses to block gay marriages in Florida. Marriages are set to begin Jan. 5, the day a stay, which had been ordered by a lower court judge who overturned the state’s same-sex marriage ban, expires.

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South
John and Shel Goldstein hug during a group wedding in Delray Beach, Fla.
John and Shel Goldstein hug during a group wedding in Delray Beach, Fla. (J Pat Carter / Associated Press)

Florida’s constitutional ban on same-sex marriage ends statewide.

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South
Same-sex marriage supporters rejoice after the U.S Supreme Court hands down a ruling regarding same-sex marriage.
Same-sex marriage supporters rejoice after the U.S Supreme Court hands down a ruling regarding same-sex marriage. (Alex Wong / Getty Images)

The U.S. Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marriage.

Read the full U.S. Supreme Court decision.

Tagged as
United States

Sources: Times research

Credits: Megan Garvey, Molly Hennessy-Fiske, Rong-Gong Lin II, Brady MacDonald, Mark McGonigle, Maloy Moore, Anthony Pesce, Ken Schwencke, James Wagner, TimelineSetter